How to Expose for the Shadows and Develop for the Highlights
To be more exact, color photography did exist much earlier than many people realize but it’s availability as a mass produced commodity for public consumption didn’t come until later. Here are some (really marvelous) color slides from 1909: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/old-russian-empire-color-photos-180950229/?no-ist
I’ve read the other forum discussions re “what is fine art?”, but I think my question is a little different. I’m specifically focused on the B&W question, which doesn’t seem to be addressed in previous postings.
I remember, after working on B&W with a wet darkroom, that I thought my vacation color prints were hidious: grainy, blotchy, and muddy.
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That said, I suspect you are finding more references to black and white because the term is more popular among current b&w photographers…
It also seems like when color photography is “Fine Art” the color itself is a major compositional element. See Jay Maisel’s “Red Wall and Rope”
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So to answer your question, it would be very difficult to make the assumption that fine art photography is predominantly B&W. Google searches are not a reliable count of such things. You would do better looking in fine art museum collections and databases to get a proper sample to run your numbers. In my opinion, fine art photography is NOT predominantly B&W but I don’t have the actual numbers either.
I am sure there are many other reasons including some historical ones involved as well.
Now that hands-on is done in Photoshop and a wide carriage, wide gamut printer is $500, things will change. But, as a teacher explained, a new medium starts out imitating the old and gradually moves to its own form of expression. She was reffering to hundred-year-old photos. It applies the same to SLR camera art.
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I’ve written a number of articles and essays over the years that I hope you will appreciate and find useful.
The Importance of Time in Fine Art Photography & Storytelling
Traditional black and white darkroom photography have always captured my soul and creative attention. It ‘s hard for me to describe the impact accurately that a finely crafted black and white darkroom print makes on me. One of the things that I do to keep me reaching higher is to schedule private showings at my local art museum.
There are some hypothetical reasons why b&w might be more prevalent in fine art. For some photographers, black and white photography is easier to express themselves, because there is one less possibly distracting element to worry about – color. Another reason is the history. Black and white photography is around since 1826, while color came hundred years later.
While modern cameras no longer have the same precise limitations, they do still appear to handle B&W better than color in dark areas since chromatic noise looks far less distracting in a B&W image (where it feels more like grain). Additionally, the aesthetic language of B&W as a moody and somber form of imagery had already been established by the film era, so it largely carries through.
In part, this is historical in nature. B&W film could generally capture a wider dynamic range than color film, and thus it was more practical when trying to capture intense detail in shadow areas of an image. This subtle dark detail is very key to expressing many darker and deeper moods in imagery, so B&W had a natural advantage.
It is easier to accentuate a sense of structure in B&W as the color information is missing. This is specially true if one shoots in “uncontrolled” environments like street where too many randomly-colored objects can become distracting.
B&W allows for more drama by pushing contrast and accentuating lightness and darkness while in color photography pushing the contrast above a certain level can result in exaggerated levels of color saturation.
Additionally, by choosing certain color filters one can reduce different colors to the needed grey tones in order to achieve a certain level of local contrast. The same cannot be done so effectively in color photography where the contrast between juxtaposing zones is regulated not only by the contrast in level of lightness but also by the contrast between colors.
Since we don’t have much choice about the color of many elements in a picture like the sky (we do have some choice in different tones of the same color though), the color photos are by definition less manipulable and drama-prone.
But this is quickly changing as we increasingly rely on digital tools to apply subtle but effective color modifications to photos. Removing color information from a picture can per se be considered some sort of abstraction which is one of the objectives of many schools of fine art.
In the days before digital was high-end (like 10 years ago for home or budgetless) the wet photo developing and printing process was more interactive. The art maker (as opposed to a snapshot) would take an active role in making the print come out the way he wanted, including additional mods at any step along the way. Color was done by an automated machine. Color printing was more elaborate, expensive, and doesn’t provide for “mods” in the same way. And it has to be done in total darkness.
How to Create Fine Art Black and White Archival Prints in the Darkroom
Here’s some of MoMA’s photography collection, starting with more recent work: http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?criteria=O%3ADE%3AI%3A4|G%3AHI%3AE%3A1&page_number=1&template_id=6&sort_order=2&UC=
Technically speaking (and not erring on the historical side):
Fine art photography is not necessarily black and white. Black and white photography has been around longer than color which is one reason why, in the historical world of the fine arts, you might find more of it. In the world of contemporary fine art, I doubt you would find that black and white is predominate. It would be better to go to the library and find or request a book on contemporary photography to learn about the subject. Googling as a research methodology has its limits.
I’ve done a lot of reading on this to try and find the answer myself, but have not been successful. I’ve seen many definitions of “fine art” in the web, wikipedia, etc. I’ve read about the historical meaning of the term (art made primarily for its aesthetic value, not for usefulness, its commercial value, or photojournalism), etc.
It is still possible to do fine art photography with color, but the selection of color needs to be pretty deliberate and may include artificial coloring to bring out particular feelings as well.
Fine art photography has nothing to do with the saturation or de-saturation of the image. It has to do with composition and the picture actually “saying something” to the observer. Thus, Art.
Who woke up one morning and deemed that in order for photographs to be considered “fine art”, it had to be in B&W?
But all these said, I wouldn’t claim almost everything fine-art is black and white. It is just that we have a longer history of black and white photography, more experience with the medium and a more sizeable repertoire of classics done in black and white.
I have a theory that color can be distracting to the human brain, and so removing that element helps us focus in on form and content. Turning down the color noise helps us hear the signal better, as it were.
Having the opportunity to view prints from legends like Irving Penn, Julia Margaret Cameron, Ansel Adams, Paul Strand, and others is a touching and moving experience for me. I can’t wrap my head around the talent of these photographers and then when I think about the time in which they created these prints, it is just mind boggling to me. I always leave these viewings inspired and charged up to elevate my work to a higher level.
By the way, be careful about referencing Google searches as they are deeply customized to your tastes and location according to your earlier searches and IP address. In order to get a less biased search you need to turn the anonymizer on in your web browser.
Black and white photography is very impactful. It relies on contrast and clarity instead of color gradients so it has a tendency to get a strong emotion accross more efficiently (and again, this is entirely debatable from the standpoint of art) than a color photograph.
Why I Choose Black and White Darkroom Photography in the 21st Century
With respect to photography, I’ve not found anything that says “fine art” photography has to be in B&W. But when you see photographs grouped or labeled as “fine art”, 99% is in B&W (my own estimation- no scientific research done). Google “fine art photography” in Google Images and you get a a whole lot of moody B&W, nude pics, close-in portraits, flower or landscape still life, etc., with very few color photos.
I believe fine art photography is any photography that you would hung on your wall (or a gallery wall) for its aesthetic qualities. It does not matter if it is black and white or color.
Black and White is more abstract in that it stands further away from reality. Hence it is easier to ‘make art’, or make something look like art by simply removing the colored layer of reality. And so even very bland or everyday pictures in B&W immediately look more intruiging than their color counterparts. Plus people think it ‘looks cool’ … see also the popularity of all kinds of filters which also take away the ‘normality’ of a photo.