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Black And White Film Photography Basics.

Look for Contrast, Shape and Texture. The complimentary and opposing colours that bring a colour image to life are all reduced to black and white or shades of grey in a monochrome image and you have to look for tonal contrast to make a shot stand out. In colour photography, for example, your eye would instantly be drawn to a red object on a green background, but in monochrome photography these two areas are likely to have the same brightness, so the image looks flat and dowdy straight from the camera. providentially , it’s possible to work adjust the brightness of these two colours separately to introduce some contrast. However, a great starting point is to look for scenes with tonal contrast. There are always exceptions, but as a general rule look for scenes that contain some strong blacks and whites. This should be achieved by the light or by the brightness (or tone) of the objects in the scene as well as the exposure settings that you use. The brightness of the bark of a silver birch tree for example, should inject some contrast (and interest) in to a woodland scene. Setting the exposure for these brighter areas also makes the shadows darker, so the highlights stand out even more. Look for shapes, patterns and textures in a scene and move around to find the greatest composition.

Take Control. Although coloured filters should still be used to manipulate contrast when shooting digital black and white images, it’s more prominent to save this work until the processing stage. Until a some years ago Photoshop’s Channel Mixer was the favored means of turning colour images monochrome, but now Adobe Camera Raw has more strong tools (in the HSL/Grayscale tab) that allow you to adjust the brightness of eight individual colours that make up the image. It’s possible to adjust one of these colours to make it anything from white to black with the sliding control. However, it’s important to keep an eye on the whole image when adjusting a particular colour as crafty gradations could become unnatural looking. And adjusting the brightness of a red or rosy shirt with the red sliding control, for moment , will have an impact on the model’s skin, especially the lips. The Levels and Curves controls could also be used to manipulate tonal range and contrast, but the HSL/Grayscale controls allow you to create separation between objects of the same brightness but with different colours.

Use Filters. Graduated neutral density (AKA ND grad) and polarizing filters are purely as useful in monochrome photography as they are in colour. In fact, because they manipulate image contrast they are arguably more useful . An ND grad is cooperative when you want to retain detail in a bright sky while a polarizing filter can be used to decrease reflections and boost contrast. Alternatively, think taking two or more shots with different exposures to create a high dynamic range (HDR) composite. Don’t be anxious to use a ND grad with a standard neural density filter if the sky is brighter than the foreground in a long exposure shot. Coloured filters, which are an essential tool for monochrome film photographers, could also be useful for manipulating contrast in digital images. They work by darkening objects of her opposite colour while lightening objects of her own. An orange filter, for example, will darken the blue of the sky while a green single will lighten foliage.

Try Long Exposure. Long exposure shots could work really well in monochrome photography, especially where there’s moving water or clouds. During the exposure the highlights of the water, for example, are recorded across a wider area than they would with a short exposure and this can help enhance tonal contrast. The blurring of the movement also adds textural contrast with any solid objects in the frame. If necessary , use a neutral density filter such as Lee Filters’ Big Stopper or Little Stopper to decrease exposure and extend shutter speed (by 10 and 4 stops respectively). classically , when exposures extend farther than as for 1/60 sec a tripod is wanted to keep the camera still and avoid blurring. It’s also advisable to use a remote release and mirror lock-up to minimise vibration and produce super-sharp images.

Dodge and Burn. Dodging and burning is a path that comes from the traditional darkroom and is usually used to burn in or darken highlights and hold back (brighten) shadows. Photoshop’s Dodge and Burn tools allow a level of control that film photographers may only thought of taking a degree of because you should target the highlights, shadows or mid-tones with both. This means that you could use the Burn tool to darken highlights when they are too bright, or the Dodge tool to brighten up them to increase local contrast. It’s a great plan of giving a sense of superior sharpness and enhancing texture. Plus, because you could set the opacity of the tools, you should build up his effect gradually so the impact is crafty and there are no hard edges.

Shoot RAW + JPEG. The best monochrome conversions are found by chance by editing raw files which have the full colour information, but if you shoot raw and JPEG files simultaneously and set the camera to its monochrome picture Style/Picture Control/Film Simulation mode you get an indication of how the image will look in black and white. As many photographers struggle to visualise a scene in black and white, these monochrome modes are an invaluable tool that will help with composition and scene assessment. numerous cameras are also capable of producing decent in-camera monochrome images these days and it’s worth experimenting with image parameters (usually contrast, sharpness, filter effects and toning) to find a look that you like. Because compact routine cameras and compact cameras show the scene seen by the sensor with camera settings applied, users of these cameras are able to preview the monochrome image in the electronic viewfinder or on rear screen before taking the shot. DSLR users could also do this if they activate his camera’s live concept course of action , but the usually slower responses mean that many will find it preferable or check the image on the screen post-capture.

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You don’t have this option when shooting on film. So you really have to pay attention to what it is that you want to capture and how it’s going to look in black and white.

How a light meter works.  Up until fairly recently all in camera light meters measured light the same way for all films.  Towards the end of the film camera era technology got more advanced and they came up with new ways to meter but the majority of cameras were calibrated to find “middle gray” which is somewhere around 18 percent reflected light depending on the manufacturer.  If you had a grey card you could calibrate your camera settings to middle gray and theoretically get consistent results.

The first thing you’ll notice when you get a roll of black and white film developed (particularly with the brand of film that I use: Ilford HP5 Plus) is that the dynamic range is a lot worse than what you’re used to with digital and colour film.

Aperture.  The hardest part for a new photography to wrap their mind around is that the smaller the number, the more light a lens lets in.  This is commonly known as an F stop.  This concept baffles people because they assume a small number means a small hole.  F22 sounds way bigger then F1, right?  And then they go and call it a stop.  Now everyone is really confused.  Why do they make it this hard?  Well hang in there tiger!  They call it a stop because on many lenses made before plastic was invented there was an actual “click” between settings and so it became common in photography vernacular to refer to the distance between clicks as stops.  Some lenses have half stops in between the numbers.  Cameras that control aperture digitally may even have 1/3 stops.  The common settings let in exactly twice as much light as the previous setting.  When you get at the bottom of the scale the stops may not be in whole increments as an example F1.7 is a little more than one stop below F2.8.  One stop below f2.8 is F2 but F1.8 and F1.7 let in a little more light and look more impressive for marketing.  Don’t get too hung up on the numbers eventually they’ll either come to you or you can ignore them and go happily on your way.

Shutter Speed.  These are measured as fractions of a second.  500 is 1/500th of a second.  Beware:  Old Cameras lie.  Your camera may not be exactly spot on.  Luckily film is forgiving stuff.  As in aperture each stop lets in twice as much (or half as much) light.  So 1000 is twice as fast as 500 so that’s one stop.  250 is 2 times as slow as 1000 so that’s two stops and so on.

This really bothered me the first time I got my film back because I didn’t know about it before I shot. I hadn’t adjusted my shooting style to match it.

I urge everyone to start shooting on film as soon as possible. There’s a good chance you won’t be able to experience it in the future.

You need to be really careful about this. You’ll find that even landscape shots don’t come out properly, let alone photos of people indoors.

In my post on film photography, I talk in detail about how shooting on film helps to hone your skill. You think a lot more about what you’re doing before taking each photo, rather than wasting a piece of 35mm film.

Without getting super scientific I will mention that for really long exposures the law that we work with within normal parameters does not fully apply.  This is due to reciprocity law failure or Schwarzschild effect.  If you have questions or that applies to you than you can Google it.

The light is harder to control but, when you expose a photo correctly with the light in the right places, the results can be much more dramatic.

Had I shot the photo above on colour film, you’d be able to see the subject with no problem. When shooting on black and white film, it’s important to determine where the light illuminates the subject and work around that.

The Sunny 16 rule.  The sunny 16 rule works great.  Some film manufactures even print it on the inside of their boxed film.  The principle is that if your shutter speed is set to the nearest setting equal to speed of the film (i.e. 500 for 400 ISO, 200 for 200 ISO etc) in bright full sun conditions you’ll use f16 for normal exposure.  And if it’s not sunny?  Well if it’s cloudy but still bright you could either decrease your shutter speed down one stop or maintain your shutter speed and open up your aperture one stop.  As an example 500 at F11 is equal to 1000 at f8.  Both of these result in an EV one stop lower then 500 at f16.  Fred Parkers website has a chart which gives you common lighting conditions and their EV to use as a guide.  It’s amazing how well the method actually works once you get the hang of it.

One of my favourite things about shooting on film is how good skin looks.

Once you understand how the film reacts to the light, you can use it as a creative tool in your photography.

Mistakes can get pretty expensive if you’re not sure what you’re doing with your film camera. This forces you to quickly learn what you’re doing wrong.

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I have noticed over the past 2 years that development is getting more expensive.  It’s also taking longer to do and film is becoming harder to find. If we take that as a sign of things to come, it doesn’t look too good.

I’ve written about film photography and I’ve written about black and white photography. You’re probably wondering why I’m writing about black and white film photography.

Exposure Value or EV.  Exposure Value or EV makes it easier for some to visualize the amount of light available based on conditions.  Please refer to Fred Parker’s website, he’ll even let you download and print his very useful scale for your personal use.  I use it frequently and it’s never let me down.  The relationship between your film speed, aperture and shutter speed result in an EV.  Some cameras actually had an EV scale built-in.  My Minolta 7s has this feature and it’s really useful.  Once you get the hang of it it becomes intuitive.

We have a great post on how to digitize film photos you should check out. Or how about trying our black and photography challenge to keep improving your work!

For most people starting out in film photography, particularly black and white film photography, properly exposing a negative seems like a dauntless task.  There are all these crazy words that don’t make sense being tossed around.  And then they try to confuse you by talking about zone system, over exposing and underexposing and what the hell is “Stop” anyway?  Well I’m here to help break it down for you in plain old English in layman’s terms.

My nearest lab that will actually develop it in-house is about 25 miles away. This isn’t really a lot of use as the development process itself takes a while. Instead, I take mine to my nearest major lab, who send off for it.

The answer is simple – there’s a lot more to it than meets the eye.

A lot of times you may have a classic manual camera that takes a hard to find or illegal Mercury battery or perhaps it’s a camera that functions fine with the exception of the light meter.  A working built in light meter has been standard in most cameras for so long that many people think it’s essential to photography, but I’m here to tell you it’s not.  You don’t need a light meter in your camera or even in your camera bag.  I’m not telling you to throw one away or to tell you that if you shouldn’t buy one.  I’m just saying that if the lack of a light meter is the only thing stopping you from getting out and shooting there is a solution that works great and is free.

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All things being equal if you let in less light through the aperture you must keep the shutter open longer to achieve the same exposure.  If you let in more light you must reduce the amount of time the shutter stays open.  Shutter speed has an effect of motion.  The longer a shutter is open the more movement and camera shake is recorded.  Aperture affects Depth of Field, the sharpness and contrast of your lens.  In the useful range of things the larger the aperture the softer the image and contrast.  This is why top performing high-end lenses tend to cost more to make and cost more for you to buy.

That is my favourite reason for shooting on black and white film. You’re forced to hone your skills much faster.

35mm film and development is becoming increasingly scarce. This is because some of the major developers are getting rid of their wet labs, only doing digital printing.

You rely much more on composition, texture, shape and form to create a good photo, so you have to look for this before you shoot, not after.

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Black and white film photography is all of this and more. Normally, when I take black and white photos, I shoot in colour first and convert it afterwards. This gives me more options in post production.

This still takes about 2 weeks or longer. I’m there regularly for printing anyway so it’s not too much of a problem.

That being said, there are still places around that do it at a reasonable price to a good standard. But black and white is a lot harder to get done.

Black and white film in particular makes the skin look great. The natural grain adds texture and detail, while the lack of colour emphasises the tone of the skin.

Fred Parker’s website is well-known among photographers that spend time online.  It is called the ultimate exposure calculator.  http://www.fredparker.com/ultexp1.htm  It’s not overly technical, but for someone just starting out on film photography it might not all make sense.  There are a couple of basics you need to know and understand for all the pieces to fit together.  The rest of this article is a good primer for using the ultimate exposure calculator.

A note from Josh, ExpertPhotography’s Photographer-In-Chief: Thank you for reading… CLICK HERE if you want to capture breathtaking images, without the frustration of a complicated camera. It’s my training video that will walk you how to use your camera’s functions in just 10 minutes – for free! I also offer video courses and ebooks covering the following subjects: Beginner – Intermediate Photography eBook Beginner – Intermediate Photography Video Course Landscape Photography eBook Landscape Photography Video Course Photography Blogging (Service) You could be just a few days away from finally understanding how to use your camera to take great photos! Thanks again for reading our articles!

Take the photo below for example. I knew when I shot it that the left-hand side of the photo was going to be underexposed and that the right would be overexposed. This actually worked out really well.

The effects produced and the parameters you have to work within are very different from any other type of photography. This can produce some very interesting results – results that you may associate with a much older style of photography.

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A light meter is a nice luxury to have but being able to shoot without one is a good skill to have as well.  I was on the other side of the world very far from home and I had a vintage handheld meter that died when a drunk at a bar dropped it on the patio.  Without my cheat sheet from Fred Parker’s website I wouldn’t have been able to use most of the cameras I brought with me since most of them either didn’t have a meter or the meter didn’t work.  But by knowing a few basic rules and common anchoring points for certain lighting situations I was able to get great photos without one.

This added pressure of wasting money on the film and development means that you become a much more careful photographer. You consider how else each photo could be taken before actually taking it.

That’s also one of the advantages of the poor dynamic range. The contrast on neutral colours is boosted.

I particularly like how the light shining on the back of the subject’s head is emphasised by the dark figure behind him.

Posted in: Technical Articles. Tagged: basic photography, black and white photography, broken light meter, film photography, how to properly expose a negative, how to use a manual camera, manual camera, manual photography, no light meter, photography 101, photography without a light meter, what is an f stop?.

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Film Speed.  Film speed is a way of measuring the speed in which your film reacts to light.  The faster the film (the higher the ISO) the less time is required to make an exposure.  What gets confusing is that the actual box speed on any given film may be lower the advertised.  There are some simple but time-consuming tests you can do to find your actual film speed.  How you process your film and how you meter (or not meter) have an effect on your negatives.  If you care about this kind of stuff I can’t recommend Ansel Adam’s book The Negative enough.  However if you just want the nuts and bolts of manual photography read on.

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